Archive for January, 2017


Java – How To Program…

January 21, 2017

Java- How to Program.   


This book is a great book to read. It teaches us how to do programming in Java , plus some code and exercises that can help you sharpen your java skills in doing java programming language. From array to object oriented programming , all the fundamental stuff of java programming language are explained in this book.

This chapter began our introduction to data structures, exploring the use of arrays to store data in and retrieve data from lists and tables of values. The chapter examples demonstrated how to declare an array, initialize an array and refer to individual elements of an array. The chapter introduced the enhanced for statement to iterate through arrays. We also illustrated how to pass arrays to methods and how to declare and manipulate multidimensional arrays. Finally, the chapter showed how to write methods that use variable-length argument lists and how to read arguments passed to a program from the command line.

In our discussions of object-oriented programs in the preceding chapters, we introduced many basic concepts and terminology that relate to Java object-oriented programming (OOP). We also discussed our program development methodology: We selected appropriate variables and methods for each program and specified the manner in which an object of our class collaborated with objects of Java API classes to accomplish the program’s overall goals.In this chapter, we take a deeper look at building classes, controlling access to members of a class and creating constructors. We discuss composition—a capability that allows a class to have references to objects of other classes as members. We reexamine the use of set and get methods and further explore the class type enum (introduced in Section 6.10) that enables programmers to declare and manipulate sets of unique identifiers that represent constant values. In Section 6.10, we introduced the basic enum type, which appeared within another class and simply declared a set of constants. In this chapter, we discuss the relationship between enum types and classes, demonstrating that an enum, like a class, can be declared in its own file with constructors, methods and fields. The chapter also discusses static class members and final instance variables in detail. We investigate issues such as software reusability, data abstraction and encapsulation. Finally, we explain how to orga-nize classes in packages to help manage large applications and promote reuse, then show a special relationship between classes in the same package. Chapter 9, Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance, and Chapter 10, Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism, introduce two additional key object-oriented programming technologies.

Every object can access a reference to itself with keyword this (sometimes called the this reference). When a non-static method is called for a particular object, the method’s body implicitly uses keyword this to refer to the object’s instance variables and other methods. As you will see in Fig. 8.4, you can also use keyword this explicitly in a non-static method’s body. Section 8.5 shows another interesting use of keyword this. Section 8.11 explains why keyword this cannot be used in a static method.

As you know, you can declare your own constructor to specify how objects of a class should be initialized. Next, we demonstrate a class with several overloaded constructors that enable objects of that class to be initialized in different ways. To overload constructors, simply provide multiple constructor declarations with different signatures. Recall from Section 6.12 that the compiler differentiates signatures by the number of parameters, the types of the parameters and the order of the parameter types in each signature.

Every class must have at least one constructor. Recall from Section 3.7, that if you do not provide any constructors in a class’s declaration, the compiler creates a default constructor that takes no arguments when it is invoked. The default constructor initializes the instance variables to the initial values specified in their declarations or to their default values (zero for primitive numeric types, false for boolean values and null for references). In Section 9.4.1, you’ll learn that the default constructor performs another task in addition
to initializing each instance variable to its default value.

As you know, a class’s private fields can be manipulated only by methods of that class. A typical manipulation might be the adjustment of a customer’s bank balance (e.g., a private instance variable of a class BankAccount) by a method computeInterest. Classes often provide public methods to allow clients of the class to set (i.e., assign values to) or get (i.e., obtain the values of) private instance variables. As a naming example, a method that sets instance variable interestRate would typically be named setInterestRate and a method that gets the interestRate would typically be called getInterestRate. Set methods are also commonly called mutator methods, because they typically change a value. Get methods are also commonly called accessor methods or query methods.

Every object has its own copy of all the instance variables of the class. In certain cases, only one copy of a particular variable should be shared by all objects of a class. A static field—called a class variable—is used in such cases. A static variable represents classwide information—all objects of the class share the same piece of data. The declaration of a static variable begins with the keyword static. Let’s motivate static data with an example. Suppose that we have a video game with Martians and other space creatures. Each Martian tends to be brave and willing to attack other space creatures when the Martian is aware that at least four other Martians are present. If fewer than five Martians are present, each of them becomes cowardly. Thus each Martian needs to know the martianCount. We could endow class Martian with martianCount as an instance variable. If we do this, then every Martian will have a separate copy of the instance variable, and every time we create a new Martian, we’ll have to update the instance variable martianCount in every Martian. This wastes space with the redundant
copies, wastes time in updating the separate copies and is error prone. Instead, we
declare martianCount to be static, making martianCount classwide data. Every Martian
can see the martianCount as if it were an instance variable of class Martian, but only one
copy of the static martianCount is maintained. This saves space. We save time by having the Martian constructor increment the static martianCount—there is only one copy, so we do not have to increment separate copies of martianCount for each Martian object.

As we explained in the preceding section, instantiating a subclass object begins a chain of constructor calls in which the subclass constructor, before performing its own tasks, invokes its direct superclass’s constructor either explicitly (via the super reference) or implicitly (calling the superclass’s default constructor or no-argument constructor). Similarly, if the superclass is derived from another class (as is, of course, every class except Object), the superclass constructor invokes the constructor of the next class up in the hierarchy, and so on. The last constructor called in the chain is always the constructor for class Object. The original subclass constructor’s body finishes executing last. Each superclass’s constructor manipulates the superclass instance variables that the subclass object inherits. For example, consider again the CommissionEmployee3– sePlusCommissionEmployee4 hierarchy from Fig. 9.12 and Fig. 9.13. When a program creates a BasePlusCommissionEmployee4 object, the BasePlus- CommissionEmployee4 constructor is called. That constructor calls CommissionEmployee3’s constructor, which in turn calls Object’s constructor. Class Object’s constructor has an empty body, so it immediately returns control to CommissionEmployee3’s constructor, which then initializes the private instance variables of CommissionEmployee3 that are part
of the BasePlusCommissionEmployee4 object. When CommissionEmployee3’s constructor
completes execution, it returns control to BasePlusCommissionEmployee4’s constructor,
which initializes the BasePlusCommissionEmployee4 object’s baseSalary.

p/s:- Some of this article are excerpt from the book – Java – How To Program – Seventh Edition written by P.J. Deitel and H.M. Deitel and published by Pearson Education in 2007.