Archive for October, 2014


Fuzzing…Brute Force Vulnerability Discovery……

October 24, 2014


This week I’m writing about Fuzzing … Brute Force Vulnerability Discovery….Just got a book from the National Library (PNM).  Fuzzing is a method for discovering faults in software by providing unexpected input and monitoring for exceptions. It is typically an automated or semiautomated process that involves repeatedly manipulating and supplying data to target software for processing. Fuzzing has evolved into one of today’s most effective approaches to test software security. To “fuzz” , you attach a program’s inputs to a source random data , and then systematically identify the failures that arise. Hackers have relied on fuzzing for years.  Renowned fuzzing experts show you how to use fuzzing to reveal weaknesses in your software before someone else does.

Pregenerated Test Cases – this is the method taken by the PROTOS framework. Test case develeopment begins with studying a particular specification to understand all supported data structure and the acceptable value ranges for each. Hard coded packets or files are then generated that test boundary conditions or violate the specification altogether. Those test cases can then be used to test how accurately the specification has been implemented on target systems.Creating test cases can require considerable work up front , but has the advantage of being able to be reused to uniformly test multiple implementations of the same protocol or file format.

Manual Protocol Mutation Testing – there is no automated fuzzer involved. The researcher is the fuzzer. After loading up the target application , the researcher simply enters inappropriate data in an attempt to crash the server or induce some undesirable behaviour. This class of fuzzing is most often applied to Web applications.

Mutation or Brute Force Testing – a fuzzer that starts with a valid sample of a protocol or data format and continually mangles every individual byte , word , dword , or string within that data packet or file. This is great early approach because it requires very little up-front research and implementing a basic brute force fuzzer is relatively straightforward.

Network Protocol Fuzzing – I would like to touch this chapter- chapter 14 regarding network protocol fuzzing that requires identifying the attack surface , mutating or generating error-inducing fuzz values , transmitting those fuzz values to a target , and monitoring that target for faults. If your fuzzer communicates with its target over some form of socket , then it is a network protocol fuzzer.

The book contains chapter about Fuzzer Methods and Fuzzer Types , Data Representation and Analysis , Requirements for Effective Fuzzing , Automation and Data Generation ,Environtment Variable and Argument Fuzzing , and so on..from Chapter 8 to 26. I strongly recommend people in Software Engineering , Malware Expert field to read this book.

p/s:- Excerpt taken from the book – Fuzzing…Brute Force Vulnerability Discovery – by Addison Wesly.


CCNA Voice…

October 7, 2014


Just a few weeks ago , I borrow a book entitled CCNA Voice – Study Guide by Sybex. It’s pretty a good book to read , for those who interested in taking CCNA Voice. It Includes about 11 chapter consist of VoIP Voice. In Cisco Unified Communication architecture , Unified Communications Managers are what makes IP telephony possible. These hardware/software devices are the brains that handle IP call processing. The call processing portion of a Unified Communication System handles the sequence of operations from time a user pick up a phone to make a call to the time the user ends the call by hanging up. All of the signaling , dial interpretation , ringing , and call connecting is performed by the call processor. From a phone user’s standpoint , the call processor acts like a legacy based analog or digital phone. All of the basic phone functions such as dialing , ring signals , and interactions are the same as they’re always been. This is obviously by design ; because users are so familiar with using phones , it would be very difficult to modify user behavior.

Cisco Unified Communications Manager
When moving from Cisco Unified Communications Manager Business Edition to a full CCM solution, you are primarily gaining two key benefits: redundancy and scalability. The full Cisco Unified Communications Manager network solution can scale to virtually any size and allows you to implement multiple redundant servers that can support IP phones and applications should any of your primary call processing servers fail.

Applications Layer
As you move up to the next layer of the Cisco VoIP structure, you encounter the applications that expand the functionality of the voice network in some way. Many applications have already been developed for the Cisco VoIP solution, each of them adding its own special features to the voice network. Three of these application servers stand out as “essential applications” for many VoIP networks: Cisco Unity (voice mail), Interactive Voice Response (IVR)/Auto Attendant, and Unified Contact Center.

Cisco Unity Products
Cisco has designed the Cisco Unity product line to encompass everything dealing with messaging. Whereas traditional phone systems are geared to deliver messages to telephone handsets, Cisco Unity allows you to deliver messages to a variety of clients. This allows VoIP network users to unify (thus the name) all messaging into a single point of access. For
example, fax messages, voice mail, and e-mail can all be delivered to a single inbox. The Cisco Unity product line comes in three different flavors, as discussed in the following sections:
1.  Cisco Unity Express
2.  Cisco Unity Connection
3 . Cisco Unity

p/s:- taking from the excerpt – CCNA Voice – Study Guide – from Sybex.