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Systems Programming…

May 7, 2016

system programming

Borrowed this book from National Library (PNM) last month. A book that’s tell us about compiler , compiler’s data structure , interpreter , parsers , how to build and encode compilers and what happens when a program code build , run and compile…Assembler is also discussed in this book , using an assembly language to write a program..also discussed is about linkers and loaders , how linkers and loaders run in the background when a certain program compiles…

When our program is compiled , initially the compiler takes the input source program and breaks it into stream of tokens. The tokens can be keywords , identifiers , relational operators and so on. these tokens are gouped together by the syntax analysis phase of compiler in order to detect the syntax of  programming constructs. If from a group of tokens the syntax can not be identified then a syntax error may get generated.

Creating a compiler is a critical task. Hence we can automate the process of building compiler by using automated tools for generating various phases of compiler. LEX and YACC are such tools. The LEX is used for generating the lexical analyzer program for the compiler and YACC is used to generate the syntax analyzer program automatically.

Recursion is the basic problem for implementing macro calls within macros. If a macro call is encountered during the expansion of a macro, the macro processor will have to expand the included macro call and then finish expanding the enclosing macro. The second call might be expanded by a second macro processor , which would look up the macro definition in the MDT and return the expanded code to the first macro processor. Having many macro processor is neither efficient nor general. If a single macro processor is to handle such nested macro calls, it must in some way save its status when it encounters nested calls.

To handle macro calls within macros , the macro processor must be able to work recursively i.e. to process one macro before it is finished with another , then continue with the previous one.

In Conclusion , its a good book to read . It tells us about operating system and it’s components , how assembler and compilers works , dynamic linking , i/o , file and memory  management , cpu scheduling and process synchronization.

p/s:- Some of the article above is an excerpt from the book Systems Programming written by A.A.Puntambekar and I.A.Dhotre publish by Technical Publications Pune – Fourth Revised Edition 2010.

BuddyPress…

buddypress

Borrowed this book from National Library (PNM) last month…It’s quite an awesome and an interesting book to read about BuddyPress. BuddyPress is a platform to create a social community on your website. It integrates with the WordPress blogging platform , such as member blogs and blog tracking features.

One of the most attractive features of the WordPress and BuddyPress platform is the ease in which you can install , set up , and use the platform to manage and maintain your web site. You don’t need to be a programmer to get BuddyPress up and running. Even someone new  to WordPress and BuddyPress can have a full featured web site , blog , and social community up and running in a relatively short period.

Another way to extend your BuddyPress social community is to customize the look and layout of your site with BuddyPress themes and templates. BuddyPress comes packaged with themes for you to use.The BuddyPress default themes include all the basic elements that you need when starting a new BuddyPress social community on your web site. you can extend your community in several ways by using the plugins and themes released by members of the BuddyPress community , but these default themes are an easy way to get started.

First thing first , you need to visit the BuddyPress Settings page to configure the general settings of your BuddyPress community. BuddyPress comes packaged with several different components and features that you can enable within your community. You do not have to use all of the available components – as a site administrator , you have the option to use only what you need  and leave the rest. The following steps take you through the basic settings:-

1- Log in to your WordPress MU dashboard

Point your browser to http://yourdomain.com/wp-login.php ,          enter your WordPress admin username and password , and                then click the Log In button.

2- Expand the BuddyPress menu.

On the left side  of your WordPress MU dashboard , click the              drop-down arrow on the BuddyPress menu. This expands the            BuddyPress menu and displays several links beneath the                    menu title.

3- Browse to the BuddyPress Settings page.

Click the general settings links on the BuddyPress menu.                    This loads the BuddyPress Settings page.

Lastly , you have to install WordPress plugin , install BuddyPress as a plugin in your WordPress installation , and there you go…You have your own WordPress and BuddyPress…

p/s:- Some of this article is taken from the excerpt from the book BuddyPress for Dummies , written by Lisa Sabin Wilson , publish by Wiley Publishing Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Professional PaperVision3D….

April 9, 2016

professional papervision3d

This book I borrowed from PNM (National Library) and it’s quite an interesting book to read. It tells you about the installation of papevision3d , some computer graphics stuff and how to code using papervision3d and java. The view frustum contains everything that’s visible in a 3D scene. The view frustum is pyramid-shaped and at its apex is the camera. The viewable volume is bounded by a polyhedron. Its entry plane is called the near clip plane and the end of its viewing volume is called the far clip plane. The cube inside the viewable volume shown above is projected onto the viewport while the pyramid outside is not drawn ; it’s culled.

To succesfully map  x and y coordinates to the projection plane ( or viewport ) you must map the view frustum shown above to a cube. Without going into all the details , you accomplish this using a projection matrix. Most 3D operations are accomplished using matrix algebra , which is beyond the scope of this book but addressed on the book’s website. The depth in the view frustum is what determines the z-sorting values.

Running a Papervision3D application is like simultaneously recording and projecting your 3D scene . The scene is the middleman. It’s what the camera films and what the projector projects. You can think of the whole process as a combination of a movie camera and projector that both films and projects your 3D scene simultaneously. The scene is what the camera is pointed at and the objects are the items that the camera films. the material are what your objects are dressed in and  determine how the light interacts with the scene elements. The reels  on your projector are your renderer and as your reels turn ( using onEnterFrame or Timer methods ) they cast the recorded scene onto your screen which is your viewport. Finally , at a the heart of Papevision3D is the DisplayObject3D class.

Crucial to understanding how Papervision3D handles objects is to grasp how vertices are manipulated to create 3D computer graphics. The most important thing to remember when dealing with 3D graphics in Papervision3D is that “a vetex is a vertex”. No matter how complex your 3D objects become , it all eventually boils down to a group of vertices arranged in triangles. Papervision3D’s vertex class is Vertex3D. It holds the 3D position of your vertices and a few methods for those vetices. Technically speaking a vertex is an instance of a data structure. That instance contains the attributes of your point in space…wherever it may be.

Lastly , Papervision3D is a framework that encompass computer graphics that can manipulate objects , graphics and media in one application using java language. Papervision3D can be downloaded in the internet…

p/s: – Some of the article above is taken from the excerpt of Professional PaperVision3D written by Michael Lively published by John Wiley and Sons , Limited.

 

Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in Java…

data structures and analysis in java - pearson

This book also I borrowed from PNM ( National Library ) that tells us about data structure – linked list , queue , stack , trees , hashing , heaps , sorting , algorithm and much more…But the coding of the data structure now we are using is java language.

The most important resource to analyze is generally the running time. Several factors affect the running time of a program. Some , such as the compiler and computer used , are obviously beyond the scope of any theoretical model , so , although they are important , we cannot deal with them here. The other main factors are the algorithm used and the input  to the algorithm. Typically , the size of the input is the main consideration. We define two functions , T avg (N) and T worst (N) , as the average and worst-case running time , respectively , used by an algorithm on input of size N. Clearly , T avg (N) ≤ T worst (N). If there is more than one input , these functions may have more than one argument.

The most confusing aspect of analyzing algorithms probably centers around the logarithm. We have laready seen that some divide-and-conquer algorithms will run in O(N log N) time. Besides divide-and-conquer algorithms , the most frequent appearance of logarithms centers around the following general rule. An algorithm is O(log N) if it takes constant (O(1)) time to cut the problem size by a fraction ( which is usually 1/2). On the other hand , if constant time is required to merely reduce the problem by a constant amount ( such as to make the problem smaller by 1 ) , then the algorithm is O(N).

It should be obvious that only special kinds of problems can be O(log N). For instance , if the input is a list of N numbers , an algorithm must take Ω(N) merely to read the input in .Thus , when we talk about O(log N) algorithms for these kinds of problems , we usually presume that the input is preread.

Once an analysis has been performed , it is desirable to see if the answer is correct and as good as possible. One way to do this is to code up the program and see if the empirically observed running time matches the running time predicted by the analysis. When N doubles , the running time goes up by a factor of 2 for linear programs , 4 for quadratic program , and 8 for cubic programs. Programs that run in logarithmic time take only an additive constant longer when N doubles , and programs that run in O(N log N) take slightly more than twice as long to run under the same circumstances. These increases can be hard to spot if the lower-order terms have relatively large coefficients and N is not large enough. An example is the jump form N=10 to N=100 in the running time for the various implementations of the maximum subsequence sum problem. It also can be very difficult to differentiate linear programs from O(N log N) programs purely on empirical evidence.

Lastly , this book mainly talks about data structure , algorithm analysis , coding data structure in java language and some exercise that can strenghten your basic subjects in data structure.

p/s:- Some of the articles is an excerpt from Data Structure and Algorithm Analysis in Java – Second Edition written by Mark Allen Weiss published by Pearson Education Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Programming and Cascading Style Sheets – Separating Content From Presentation…

February 13, 2016

professional_microsoft_sql_server_2008_programming

Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Programming.

This is book is mainly about the usage and programming using Microsoft SQL Server 2008 , how to do database setup , inserting , updating , deleting tables and so on…I borrowed it from the National Library (PNM). It teaches us the basic syntax of using Microsoft SQL Server 2008 programming language. Databases are made up of many things , but none is more central to the make-up of a database than tables are. A table can be thought of as equating to an accountant’s ledger or an Excel spreadsheet. It is made up of what is called domain data (columns) and entity data (rows). The actual data for the database is stored in the tables.

SQL Server is a large product and the various pieces of it utilize a host of services that run in the background on your server. A full installation will encompass nine different services , and seven of these can be managed from this part of the SQL Server Configuration Manager ( the other two are services that act as background support ).

SQL Server provides several of what are referred to as Net-Libraries (network libraries) , or NetLibs. These are dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) that SQL Server uses to communicate with certain network protocols. NetLibs serve as something of an insulator between your client application and the network protocol , which is essentially the language that one network card uses to talk to another , that is to be used. They serve the same function at the server end , too. The NetLibs supplied with SQL Server 2008 include Named Pipes , TCP/IP (the default) , Shared Memory and VIA ( a special virtual interface that your storage-hardware vendor may support ).

Every time you run a query , SQL Server parses your query into its component parts and then sends it to the query optimizer. The query optimizer is the part of SQL Server that figures out the best way to run your query to balance fast results with minimum impact to other users . When you use the Show Estimated Execution Plan option , you receive a graphical representation and additional information about how SQL Server plans to run your query. Similarly , you can tun on the Include Actual Execution Plan option. Most of the time , this will be the same as the estimated execution plan , but you will occasionally see differences here due to changes that the optimizer decides to make while running the query , as well as changes in the actual cost of running the query versus what the optimizer thinks is going to happen.

p/s:- Some of these articles are excerpt from the book –  Beginning Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Programming – written by Robert Vieira and publish by Wiley Publishing Inc.

cascading style sheets

Cascading Style Sheets – Separating Content From Presentation

This book i borrowed from the National Library (PNM). It tell us about how to use the Cascading Style Sheets , the origin of it , the foundation and concepts , the XHTML and CSS. CSS at its core is extremely simple and powerful. It allows you to attach style rules to HTML markup elements , such as the <p> or <a> element. These rules define the presentational aspects of the HTML elements to which they apply, such as color or typeface.

The <style> element appears in the <head> element of an XHTML document. Its type attribute declares that the style language is CSS , and it overrides the default stylesheet language used by the browser when rendering stylesheets. Actually, there are no other style languages in use by browsers today , except for Netscape Navigator 4.x’s proprietary JavaScript Stylesheets (JSSS) , which use the type attribute value “text/javascript” , now virtually obsolete as the browser fades from existence. However, as with many things in CSS , the type attribute looks forward to a time when browsers provide support for multiple style languages.

The popularity and power of a general-purpose SGML document type such as HTML wasn’t lost on XML’s designers , however , and as a transitional step toward the future , the HTML vocabulary wan reimplemented in XML as XHTML , the basis of most of our examples in this book. By making use of a well-known and proven generic document type , XML’s creators hope to leverage the knowledge of millions of web author while tightening down the screws with regard to syntax. As a result , a valid XHTML document may be viewd in any modern browser ( and even in most legacy browsers ) without much difficulty , and it may also be used by tools designed to interpret and manage XML documents , because it is itself an application of XML. Eventually , the Web’s architects expect that we’ll all be suing XHTML with our own , or with widely adopted , XML formats such as SVG , MathML , RDF , RSS , and others.

If you’re using XSLT or some other transformation language , you may need to document the naming convention several times or show the relationships between the storage format ( whether document repository , object database , relational database , or flat files ) , the transformation rules (whether XSLT or some other software package with XML support ) , the output format (whether another custom XML document , XHTML , legacy HTML , or another format ) , and the associated files , such as CSS stylesheets , Javascript files , and so forth.

p/s:-  Some of these articles are taken form the excerpt  from the book – Cascading Style Sheets – Separating Content From Presentation – written by Owen Briggs , Steven Champeon , Eric Costello and Matt Patterson – publish by Friendsof – an Apress Company.

 

 

 

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Professional WordPress – Design and Development Review….

January 15, 2016

Professional WordPress - Design and Development

 

 

 

 

 

 

Professional WordPress – Design and Development Review….

The WordPress source code features many different PHP , Javascript , and CSS code files. Each file serves a specific purpose in WordPress. The beauty of open source software is that all code is publicly available , which means you can easily explore the code to better understand how WordPress functions. The best resource for learning WordPress is the WordPress software itselft.

WordPress comes with three directories by default: wp-admin , wp-content , and wp-includes.Core files are all files in the wp-admin and wp-includes directories and the majority of the files in the root WordPress directory, The wp-content directory holds all of your custom files , including themes , plugins , and media. This directory contains the code that controls content manipulation and presentation in WordPress. WordPress HTML content , such as pages and posts , is stored in the MySQL database along with metadata such as tag and category structures, both of which are covered in detail in Chapter 6.

The most important file in any WordPress installation is the wp-config.php file. This file contains all database connection settings , including the database name , username , and password to access your MySQL database. This file also stores additional database and other advanced settings. The wp-config.php file was originally named wp-config-sample.php. Renaming the file to wp-config.php is one of the first steps to installing WordPress.

The wp-config file is typically stored in the root directory of WordPress. Alternatively , you can move the wp-config file out of the WordPress root directory and into the parent directory. So if your WordPress directory is located here,

/public_html/my_website/wp-config.php

you can safely move the file to here:

/public_html/wp-config.php

WordPress looks for the wp-config file in the root directory first , and if it can’t find that file it looks in the parent directory. This happens automatically so no settings need to be changed for this to work.

Initially , you set up WordPress in the document root of your local Apache.If you wanted more than one local website , you could set each website in its own folder. This works and you use it for many development sites. However ,  you can also set up each web server to respond to a local “fake” domain name. Sometimes , when moving to production , using this method makes the conversion from development to production easier.

p/s:- This is some of the excerpt of the article taken from the book – Professional WorPress – Design and Development – written by Brad Williams , David Damstra and Hal Stern – publish by John Wiley and Sons Inc ..

 

 

 

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Seven Deadliest USB Attacks Review …..

January 15, 2016

seven deadliest usb attacks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seven Deadliest USB Attacks Review…..

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) Hacksaw was devised by a posse of self-proclaimed “IT-Ninjas” acting on behalf of the Hak.5 organization. The Hacksaw is one mutation of many USB-related hacks that have been released on this site.

The U3 smart drive was co-developed by SanDisk and M-Systems in 2005. U3 smart drives are USB flash drives with a unique hardware and software setup. The flash-drive hardware configuration causes Windows disk management to provide dual partitions. An emulated read-only CD drive partition contains the autorun.inf and LaunchPad software. The additional drive is a standard file allocation table (FAT) partition , which includes a hidden “SYSTEM” folder for installed application. This configuration allows a U3 flash drive to launch automatically when inserted into a computer.

The regulation of the U3 platform did not stop the hacking community from targeting it. Instead , they utilize a modified U3 LaunchPad called the Universal Customizer , which can overwrite the existing U3 software , enabling an open-source platform for global development with minimal governance. Many administrative and forensic-type applications are finding their way onto this and other open-source versions.

The USB Hacksaw tool is designed to work with Windows 2000 , XP . or 2003 systems only . although some success has been achieved on Vista. The program will manually install onto Windows 7 although Stunnel v4.11 is not compatible , resulting in a failure to establish a connection to the e-mail server. A Windows XP operating system was used to build the Hacksaw version outlined in the next section. In order to get the programs on the U3 drive , you must replace the launcher with the open-source code. The tool is designed to run automatically if autorun has not been disable by the user policy.

An antivirus (AV) kill script was initially released for the original verion of the USB Switchblade. It has since been taken down from the site due to mounting inconsistencies and failure caused by vendor updates and adaptations. Some AV vendors have already tagged the AV kill program released on the Hak.5 web site (csrss.exe) for the USB Switchblade as a virus , rendering it ineffective from the get-go. Since administrator access is required for Switchblade to run successfully , there are other techniques that can be used to disable AV before the payload execution.

p/s: – Some of the excerpt are taken from the book – Seven Deadliest USB Attacks – written by Brian Anderson and Barbara Anderson – publish by Syngress.

  • Just finish interview with iContro Software Sdn Bhd – Position : Software Developer at Kota Damansara  this week….

 

 

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Effective Web Site Development – Tools and Techniques and Windows 8 – Absolute Beginners Guide…

October 22, 2015

effective website development

Effective Web Site Development – Tools and techniques.

This book I borrowed from the National Library (PNM) recently. It’s quite a good book that tells us about how to do a website project , design it and upload it into the server. Effective Website Development examines the entire Web Development project lifecycle and covers a range of Web development tools and techniques including XML , XHTML and Dreamweaver. The author – Keith Darlington takes a step-by-step approach , leading from one concept to the next , and provides the reader with the expertise to design , build and maintain dynamic websites.

Like many other projects , developing a website requires planning and analysis. The purpose of planning and analysis is to:-

1. Establish the feasibility of the project.

2. Determine the user’s requirements

3. Create a work plan.

The feasibility of the project.

A web project must begin with a list of criteria to determine whether or not the project is worthwhile. Given the diverse nature of websites , these criteria can vary considerably, Almost all organizations nowadays have some Web presence , but this can vary from sites containing a few pages describing what the organization does , to a site that contains several hundreds of pages of details. Clearly , the beneficiaries of the site will have a limited budget to allocate to the development of a site. Development and maintenance costs would clearly be an important factor , but so too would the anticipated requirements of the user.

Determine the user’s requirements.

The starting point of any website project is to establish precisely what the users want , but ideas for websites can originate from a variety of sources – management , customers , employees and all sorts of other people who may have an interest in a website project. Moreover , visitors to a website are not always a simple homogeneous group. The reasons for users visiting a website can differ greatly. They may require specific information from a site , want to purchase some product or just be casually browsing. This means that managers must be clear about who the users are and what they want from the site from the start.

  Prepare a work plan.

Having determined the user’s requirements , the next stage is to write a description of what your site will provide , along with the function of each part. This is a description of the functional requirements and , from it , a work plan setting out how they will be implemented can be formulated.

The work plan i a document that details the project tasks, resources and time allocated to the development of each of the tasks. Normally , a Gantt chart or some other project management chart along with project milestones and development schedules would be produced.

p/s:- A good book to read for a web developer starter or someone who wants to try develop a website for his/her company..Some of the article is an excerpt taken from the book – Effective Website Development – Tools and Techniques publish by Addison Wesley and written by Keith Darlington.

windows 8

Windows 8 – Absolute Beginners Guide.

A good book to read for users who want to install and use Windows 8 as their operating system. Borrowed from the National Library ( PNM ) recently.If another version of Windows were installed and running properly on your computer when Windows 8 was installed , whomever installed Windows 8 may have chosen to create a dual-boot setup. this setup enables you to choose the operating system to use when the computer is turned on – yes, this is possible.

With your computer running and Windows 8 Booted up , the next step is to sign in to Windows. Before starting down , there are a few new alternatives to the venerable password in Windows 8 to talk about.

You probably are accustomed to entering a password to access secured content on websites , as well as to sign in to computers, tablets , and some software programs. The passwords you use might be a randomly-generated string of numbers and letters or they might be the names of members of your family or perhaps the name of your favorite sports hero.

Windows 8 provides an alternative to the password for use when signing-in. When you create your new account in Windows 8 , you need to supply a password , but you can also specify use one of two new sign-in options , replacing the use of the password after you initially supply it. these two options are PIN and Picture Password. Besides saving you the repetitive stress of entering your password often , these two new options offer a lot of flexibility to determine how to access your user account. Plus , using them will certainly impress your friends and family.

The Microsoft engineers built Windows 8 to handle many problems , but there is always a chance that something can go wrong. Some software programs might interfere with others; hardware you add to your computer might interfere with Windows 8; and programs you download from the internet can cause issues. As a result , Windows 8 can freeze , become sluggish , or shut down unexpectedly , and sometimes you may need to force your computer to power down. If you have experience running Windows in one of the diagnostic modes , such as Safe Mode or Safe Mode with networking , you can use one of those options. If you are like most users , select Start Windows Normally and press Enter. Ideally everything should run just like normal at this point.

p/s:- Quite interesting book to read about Windows 8 – the new Microsoft Operating System. Some of the article is an excerpt taken from the book – Windows 8 – Absolute Beginner’s Guide publish from Pearson Education Inc and written by Paul Sanna.

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Building Interfaces with Microsoft Foundation Classes and Javascript….

September 21, 2015

Building Interfaces with Microsoft Foundation Classes

mfc classes

I borrowed this book from National Library this month….Quite interesting book that covers ways to coding in MFC (Microsoft Foundation Classes) using Visual C++.. The book covers chapter relating to Control and the User Interface , The Buttons , Edit Boxes , Listboxes and Checklist Boxes , Status Bars and so on….The user interface is one of the most critical aspects of the software development cycle. The most common perception for the use of a control is as a data entry device. Clicking a check box , pushing a button , or entering text into an edit box are all classic examples of ascertaining the user’s intentions.

Command buttons are rectilinear shapes that use either a text label or a graphical icon to represent the action the button performs. A toolbar is a common example of the use of a graphical icon. Text labels are the most common way to describe the function of a button , especially when that function or meaning cannot be easily conveyed by an icon of some sort. Graphical buttons are ideal for dialog boxes that have a lot of screen clutter , because they tend to be smaller in size than buttons with text labels.

There are times when you need to trap certain keystrokes in a dialog box. Generally , these are the Tab and Enter keys. But because dialog boxes have their own message queues , these keystrokes cannot be intercepted in Class Wizard by overriding the WM_CHAR or WM_KEYDOWN messages. There’s another way you can restrict the user’s input into an edit box without subclassing. This involves building a format string , and trapping certain messages in Class Wizard. Sometimes , simply assigning the Number property to an edit box is not enough – you need to allow the use of the plus and minus signs , and the decimal point. A Number-type edit box rejects these characters. One solution is to write a universal method that works much like the formatted input described previously.

Listbox is a control that displays a list of item , such as a list of names or files. List-boxes can have one or more columns , and allow single or multiple selection modes. Listboxes respond to both mouse clicks and keyboard entries. When a user clicks a string , or presses the spacebar while on an item in the listbox , the string is selected. This is indicated by highlighting the string in the listbox , and placing it in the edit box portion of the control.

Beginning with MFC version 4.0 , status bars are implemented using class CStatus-BarCtrl , which encapsulates a Windows95 status bar control. For backward compatibility , MFC retains the older status bar implementation in class COldStatusBar. The class includes a wide range of styles that you can apply in addition to class methods for manipulating it in a variety of ways.

In conclusion , this books covers areas such as common controls , including buttons , boxes , bars , spinners , TreeView and sliders , and there is a Microsoft’s New Common Controls. The book show you how to implement all commonly used controls and dialog boxes , how to add multimedia and so on…A good book to read if you planning coding MFC in Visual C++…

p/s:- Some of the article above is an excerpt from the book Building Better Interfaces with Microsoft Foundation Classes written by Keith Bugg and published by John Wiley and Sons , Inc.

JavaScript.

javascript

Borrowed this book from National Library (PNM) this month . A book that tells and taught us about how to coding in Javascript language using HTML and Javascript language…Some programming language must be compiled , or translated , into machine code before they can be executed. Javascript , on the other hand , is an interpreted language. The browser executes each line of script as it comes to it. Although many programming languages are complex , scripting languages are generally simple. Web scripting languages enable you to combine scripting with HTML to create interactive web pages.

When you create more complicated scripts , you’ll quickly find your HTML documents become large and confusing. To avoid this , you can use one or more external Javascript files. These are files with the .js extension that contain Javascript statements. A variety of dedicated HTML editors is also available and will work with Javascript. In fact , many include feature specifically for Javascript – for example , color-coding the various Javascript statements to indicate their purposes , or even creating simple scripts automatically.

So far , you’ve seen some Javascript statements that have a section in parentheses , like this:

document.write(“Testing.”);

This is an example of a function. Functions provide a simple way to handle a task , such as adding output to a web page. Javascript includes a wide variety of built-in functions , which you will learn about. A statement that uses a function , as in the preceding example , is referred to as a function call. Javascript  also supports objects. Like variables , objects can store data – but they can store two or more pieces of data at once. The item of data stored in an object are called the properties of the object. Javascript uses periods to separate object names and property names. Objects can also include methods. These are functions that work with the object’s data. Each event handler is associated with a particular browser object , and you can specify the event handler in the tag that defines the object. You specify the event handler as an attribute to the HTML tag and include the Javascript statements to handle the event within the quotation mark. This is an ideal use for functions because function names are short and to the point and can refer to a whole series of statements.

In Conclusion , this book teaches us to use Javascript to build dynamic interactive web pages , debug scripts , create scripts that work in all browsers , exploit the capabilities of Javascript , using CSS with simple Javascript , add AJAX effects to your web pages and many more…The book teaches about the fundamental of using Javascript programming…

p/s:- Some of the article is an excerpt from the book Javascript in 24 Hours , written by Michael Moncur and published by SAMS Publishing.

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